Theoretical phonetics. Study guide for second year students. Борискина О.О

Борискина — Теор.фонетика

Theoretical phonetics. Study guide for second year students. Борискина О.О

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

THEORETICAL PHONETICS

Study Guide

for second year students

Учебно-методическое пособие для вузов

Составители: О.О. Борискина Н.В. Костенко

2

Утверждено научно-методическим советом факультета романо-германской филологии от 12.12.2006 протокол №10

Рецензент: А.А. Кретов

Учебно-методическое пособие подготовлено на кафедре английской филологии Факультета романо-германской филологии Воронежского государственного университета.

Рекомендуется для студентов 2-го курса дневного и вечернего отделений.

Для специальностей 031201 (022600) «Теория и методика преподавания иностранных языков и культур», 031202 (022900) «Перевод и переводоведение», 031000(520300) «Филология».

3

Contents

COURSE DESCRIPTION…………………………………………………….4 PART 1 ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS………………………………………….6

PART 2 THE FUNCTIONAL ASPECT OF SPEECH SOUND……………………………..………………………………………….24

PART 3 PNONETIC MODIFICATIONS OF SOUNDS

IN DISCOURSE……………………………………………………………….27 PART 4 WORD STRESS…………………………………………………….34 PART 5 INTONATION IN DISCOURSE……………………………………37 INTROSPECTING ABOUT YOUR OWN LANGUAGE LEARNING…….47 SELECTION OF READING MATERIALS (SRM)…………………………48

REFERENCE LIST…………………………………………………………………………..78

4

To the Student

The Study Guide has three aims: (1) to help Russian learners of English specializing in Cross-cultural Communication organize their Self-study sessions by learning and using the fundamental principles of Phonetics and the Phonological system of the English language (as lingua franca), and by understanding the basic segmental and suprasegmental linguistic phenomena involved in constructing spoken English, (2) to provide access to different scholars’ opinions on phonetic phenomena in excerpts of Selection of Reading Materials Packet which are not otherwise available, and (3) to develop practical segmental and prosodic analysis skills through fluency-oriented tasks, leading to better performance in interactive situations and in decision-making about the diagnosis and treatment of pronunciation and spelling issues in TESL/TEFL.

Course Description

More specifically, the Course of Theoretical and Applied Phonetics introduces students to the International Phonetic Alphabet and other popular transcription systems, to the syllabic structure of English, the distribution of stress within a word, the consonant and vowel systems and the suprasegmentals, such as intonation in the broad sense of the word and rhythm.

The course is taught through lectures, class discussions, practical tasks, laboratory sessions, oral presentations, dramatic readings of literature excerpts (reciting poetry), essays and project work.

The course is intended:

•to build upon the students' knowledge of English grammar (spelling and punctuation) with relevance to phonetic phenomena;

•to facilitate the students’ ability to approach discourse-oriented objectives with regard to key concepts of Phonetics;

•to increase interest, motivation and raise the confidence of the students in applying the concepts of Theoretical Phonetics to a variety of practical tasks, including language teaching;

•to highlight information management and conversation management functions of suprasegmental phonetics which may reveal the speaker's social identity, the speaker-listener relationship, degree of interest or involvement in the discourse: reticence, assertiveness, concern, sarcasm, surprise, etc.

GRADING

To successfully complete the course, students are required:

•to participate in class discussions (20 % of the final grade) demonstrating an appropriate level of understanding of the considered issues and an ability to reinforce arguments with illustrations;

•to complete laboratories (20 % of the final grade);

•to complete a final assignment (20 % of the final grade) which involves transcribing a recording of a 50-word authentic conversation in English on a

tape, and analysing all the phonetic phenomena (modifications, suprasegmentals, type and style of English) found in it, specifying intonation groups, prominent and tonic syllables and the intonation patterns used. The

5

speech can be extracted from any kind of source (television shows, radio shows, movies, conversations between / among native speakers of English, etc.) and from any type of English (British, American, Australian, etc.);

• to sit a final examination ( 40% of the final grade) which consists of two parts: (1) a written essay of two of the theoretical aspects of the course; (2) the analysis of natural speech phenomena on a heard text. Below you can see Final Examination Example and a list of the theoretical aspects of the course.

Контрольно-измерительный материал №12

1.Manifestation of intonation and its linguistic functions. Basic intonation patterns of Modern English.

2.Listen to the utterance on the tape and comment on the phonetic phenomena in connected speech (sound modifications, sentence stress, intonation, etc.), the type and style it represents.

Theoretical Aspects of the Course

1. Phonetics as a branch of linguistics. Applications of phonetics.

2.Aspects of the sound matter of language.

3.Components of the phonetic system of language.

4.English is a non-phonetic language. International Phonetic Alphabet.

5.National and regional pronunciation variants of English.

6.British and American pronunciation models. Most distinctive features of BBC English and Network English.

7.The articulatory classification of English vowels.

8.The articulatory classification of English consonants.

9.Phoneme as many-sided dialectic unity of language. Types of allophones. Distinctive and irrelevant features of the phoneme.

10.The system of vowel phonemes in English. Problem of diphthongs. 11.The system of consonant phonemes in English. Problem of affricates. 12.Modifications of English consonants in connected speech. Assimilation. Elision.

13.Modifications of English consonants in connected speech. Assimilation. Accomodation.

14.Modifications of vowels in connected speech. Reduction. Accomodation.

15.Linking patterns.

16.Theories on syllable division and formation.

17.The structure and functions of syllable in English.

18.Word stress in English. Its nature and function.

19.The degrees and the position of word stress.

20.Intonationandprosody: definition, functions, components, spheres
of application.
21.Intonationandprosody: intonation patterns.

22.The framework for intonation.

6

23.Stress-time nature of Spoken English

24.Phonostylistics. Types and styles of pronunciation in English.

Part 1 English Speech Sounds

Issues to Study and Discuss:

1.Sound-symbol Correspondence in English. The Role of the Phonemic Alphabet.

2.Articulatory Classification of English Consonants.

3.Articulatory Classification of English Vowels.

4.Problematic Sounds.

Tasks

Task1. What kind of knowledge would enable you to pronounce a word properly?

Could you (as a non-native speaker of English) rely on English spelling conventions to pronounce / read an unknown word properly?

How do you pronounce the “a” in “banana”? the “c” in “success”? the “th” in “Theresa”, “Theseus” and “Thames”?

Would you dare to read the word “Ghoti”?; to transcribe it?

How would you spell [ʃ ]?

Look through the funny observations of Bill Bryson and give examples of “untruly and unpredictable language” Ref. [ Bryson,1990, SRM, pp.49-54]. Would you call the English alphabet regular in the way it symbolizes the sounds of the language? Back up your opinion.

Make a conclusion about sound-symbol correspondence system in English and the role of a phonetic/ phonemic alphabet as a set of special symbols by means of which sounds may be represented.

Task 2. Although the English version of the Roman alphabet is the primary source of symbols for transcribing English consonant phonemes, this alphabet has only twenty one consonant letters. What additions have been made and why?

Task 3. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) first introduced by D. Jones is probably familiar to you. However, it is not the only system used by phoneticians. To familiarize yourself with some other commonly used phonetic /phonemic alphabets, see Ref. [Celce-M.,1996, SRM, pp. 65-66].

What is your conclusion about the similarities and differences found in the alphabets?

Dwell on the broad versus narrow transcription.

7

Task 4. What are the main principles of classifying consonants? Are there any differences when considering the problem among Russian, British and American linguists? Make a list of the marked points of differences and fix the results in a table. Ref. [Соколова, 2004, pp.60-65; Соколова, 2003, pp.24-31].

Task 5. What is a sonorant? There has traditionally been a lot of debate about this class of consonants or vowels? Why do some of the British and American phoneticians refer some of the sonorants to the class of semivowels? Does the term liquids, used by American phoneticians, appeal to you? Why?

Task 6. Comment on the parameters below, illustrating them with examples. Sonorants vary:

•in the manner of articulation;

•in the place of articulation;

•in the position of the soft palate;

•in the direction of the air stream.

Task 7. What nasal consonant is most ly to pose a challenge to Russian learners of English? Why?

Do you know how English stops are correctly pronounced in English? Right! They are often unreleased in final position. Read the words and phrases below following the example.

Example: mop/bob (lips remain closed); peck/peg (back of the tongue remains on velum).

pick/pighot/cod
back/bagtot/tod
cap/cabshop/rob

Wow! The buttons look they’re going to pop! Yeah, it’s just not going to fit.

I’m going to take it back.

In fact, there are other problematic consonant sounds. To eliminate possible mistakes, study the recommendations given in the textbooks Ref. [Соколова,2003, pp.32-66.; Merkulova,2002, pp.46-47].

Task 8. Further practice: Ref. [Hancock, 2004, pp.14-18, 32-42; Trim, 2002, pp. 12-45].

Task 9. What is a vowel? Examine its characteristics and define how vowel sounds differ from their consonant counterparts. Many linguists claim that the description of vowels is much more elusive than that of consonants. Why?

Task 10. Study the information about basic principles of classifying vowels and answer the following questions:

1. What is the most common vowel sound in English?

8

2.How are English vowels classified on the articulatory and acoustic levels?

3.What does stability of articulation specify? How are vowels subdivided according to this principle? Is the situation seen similarly by different phoneticians?

4.What classifying principle do you think different vowel charts share? Compare the IPA vowel chart and the North American English vowel chart(s). Are there any differences? If yes, how can you account for them? Ref. [Celce- M., 1996, SRM, pp.63-64 ].

5.Why is vowel length not considered a minimal distinctive feature? What factors does it depend on? Use a specific vowel sound to illustrate your answer.

6.Fill in the gaps in the following conclusion:

“…phonological analysis of articulatory features of English vowels allows us to consider the following two characteristics functionally relevant: a)__________________________b)________________________. The rest of the features mentioned above, that is ________, _________, and _________ are indispensable constituents of vowel quality.” Ref. [Соколова, 2004, pp. 78-86;

Соколова, 2003, pp. 85-89; Bryson,1990, SRM, pp. 49-54].

Task 11. As noted, vowels can be difficult both for the teacher to describe and for the student to master.

This is partially because the articulatory characteristics of vowels cannot be pinned down as precisely as those of consonants.

A second reason why vowels can be so difficult is due to the relative complexity of the English vowel system – especially if compared to the vowel system of your native language.

1.What do you consider to be the greatest challenges in teaching vowels?

2.Are there typical difficulties for native speakers of your language?

Task 12. Further practice: Ref. [Hancock,2004, pp.30-48, 142].

Task 13. Vowels as well as consonants have no meaning of their own but they can render communicative meaning.

A: Study some vowel interjections with communicative meaning in English and transcribe them.

VOWELS WITH COMMUNICATIVE MEANING IN ENGLISH

WrittenPronouncedUsed to expressIn response to/(situation)
Ahhh![α]Satisfaction,(You step into a nice hot tub./You
relaxationtake a sip of refreshing iced tea on
a hot day.)
Aw.[ɔ:]Sympathy,“My dog just died.”
disappointment
Ow![aw]Pain(A door slams on your finger.)
Oh?[ow]Mild surprise,“The new Woody Allen movie is
interestopening tonight.”

9

Oh.[ow:]Comprehension“You have to plug it in before it’ll
work.”
Uh-oh.[?Λ? — ow]Trouble(You’re driving over the speed
limit and you see a police car in
your rear-view mirror.)
Ooh![uw:]Disgust /“Look! There’s a fly in your
Excitementsoup!”
Oops![uwps]Recognition of(You spill your coffee while
problempouring.)
Aha![əha]Discovery(You finally understand the math
problem you’ve been working on.)
Huh?[hΛ]Lack of(You don’t hear what someone
(nasal)understandingsays to you, or you think you
heard incorrectly.)
Boo![buw]Frightening(You sneak up behind someone
someoneand want to scare him or her.)
Uh-uh.[?Λ?ə]No“Have you ever read this book?”
(nasal)
Uh-huh[ənΛ]Yes“Can I call you?”
(nasal)

B: Practice using these simple interjections as an efficient means of conveying emotions and feelings.

A
What would you say if …Respond to this:
1) you sat down to relax in a big comfortable chairExample:
Ahh!
after standing all day?
2) you didn’t hear what one of your friends just said
to you?
3) you saw your teacher coming toward you and you
had skipped his class twice this week?
4) you dropped the coin while paying in the shop?
5) your boyfriend had just dumped you?
6) your friend had swallowed a bug?
7) the examiner had caught you cheating in the test?
B
What situations cause the following responses?Responses
Example:Boo!
1) You quietly walked up behind a friend to scare
her?Oops! or Uh-oh!
2) __________Aw.
3) __________Huh?
4) __________Ooh!
5) __________

10

Task 14. In three of these words the underlined part is pronounced similarly; in the fourth word the underlined part is pronounced differently. Find the fourth

word.
Example:clean
steakbreakgreat
1.lazylapellabellabourer
2.whilewhichwhowhite
3.comerollcombgrow
4.bloodproverudesouvenier
5.hourhonestheirhospital
6.dealtdreamthealjealous
7.sloganmotortotalproper
8.sugarcassettefashionpassion
9.allowdoubtboughtscout
10.replacepurchasesurfacepalace
11.absentrecentdescentpresent
12.promisedevicesurpriserealise
13.liablelivedrevivalfinal
14.housesfaceshorsesplaces
15.puddingputpullpuncture
16.sovereignfountaindetermineroutine
17.beardwordheardthird
18.ghosthostagelostfrosty
19.buryfriendlyprettypleasant
20.choruscherishchaosscholarship
21.creaturedecentleaguemenace
22.measuredreadfultreasurebreathe
23.dangerangelangermagic
24.trivialrivalminorsign
25.naturechangegravitybasis
26.disciplinevisioncylindermuscle
27.officepromiseserviceexpertise
28.suitablebiscuitguiltybuilding
29.patientcrescentancientmachine
30.physicalmythologyrhythmicpsychological

Task 15. A: Contribute to “Words commonly mispronounced by Russian learners of English”. Does it influence understanding? Is there internationally or scientifically recognized cure for mispronounciation? How would you treat it?

Words commonly mispronounced by Russian learners of English

Hotel, effort, country, onion, worry, …

B: How would you treat the following?

a) a student constantly pronounces “cart” as [kat], “part” as [pat], etc.

Источник: https://studfile.net/preview/1702620/

1 ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ THEORETICAL PHONETICS Study Guide for second year students Учебно-методическое пособие для вузов Составители: О.О. Борискина Н.В

Theoretical phonetics. Study guide for second year students. Борискина О.О

Книги по всем темамPages:     || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   …   | 10 | ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ THEORETICAL PHONETICS Study Guide for second year students Учебно-методическое пособие для вузов Составители:

О.О. Борискина Н.В.

Костенко Воронеж 2007 2 Утверждено научно-методическим советом факультета романо-германской филологии от 12.12.2006 протокол №10 Рецензент: А.А.

Кретов Учебно-методическое пособие подготовлено на кафедре английской филологии Факультета романо-германской филологии Воронежского государственного университета.

Рекомендуется для студентов 2-го курса дневного и вечернего отделений.

Для специальностей 031201 (022600) «Теория и методика преподавания иностранных языков и культур», 031202 (022900) «Перевод и переводоведение», 031000(520300) «Филология».

3 Contents COURSE DESCRIPTION…………………………………………………….4 PART 1 ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS………………………………………….6 PART 2 THE FUNCTIONAL ASPECT OF SPEECH SOUND……………………………..………………………………………….24 PART 3 PNONETIC MODIFICATIONS OF SOUNDS IN DISCOURSE……………………………………………………………….27 PART 4 WORD STRESS…………………………………………………….

34 PART 5 INTONATION IN DISCOURSE……………………………………37 INTROSPECTING ABOUT YOUR OWN LANGUAGE LEARNING…….47 SELECTION OF READING MATERIALS (SRM)…………………………48 REFERENCE LIST…………………………………………………………………………..

78 4 To the Student The Study Guide has three aims: (1) to help Russian learners of English specializing in Cross-cultural Communication organize their Self-study sessions by learning and using the fundamental principles of Phonetics and the Phonological system of the English language (as lingua franca), and by understanding the basic segmental and suprasegmental linguistic phenomena involved in constructing spoken English, (2) to provide access to different scholars’ opinions on phonetic phenomena in excerpts of Selection of Reading Materials Packet which are not otherwise available, and (3) to develop practical segmental and prosodic analysis skills through fluency-oriented tasks, leading to better performance in interactive situations and in decision-making about the diagnosis and treatment of pronunciation and spelling issues in TESL/TEFL.

Course Description More specifically, the Course of Theoretical and Applied Phonetics introduces students to the International Phonetic Alphabet and other popular transcription systems, to the syllabic structure of English, the distribution of stress within a word, the consonant and vowel systems and the suprasegmentals, such as intonation in the broad sense of the word and rhythm.

The course is taught through lectures, class discussions, practical tasks, laboratory sessions, oral presentations, dramatic readings of literature excerpts (reciting poetry), essays and project work.

The course is intended:

• to build upon the students' knowledge of English grammar (spelling and punctuation) with relevance to phonetic phenomena;

• to facilitate the students’ ability to approach discourse-oriented objectives with regard to key concepts of Phonetics;

• to increase interest, motivation and raise the confidence of the students in applying the concepts of Theoretical Phonetics to a variety of practical tasks, including language teaching;

• to highlight information management and conversation management functions of suprasegmental phonetics which may reveal the speaker's social identity, the speaker-listener relationship, degree of interest or involvement in the discourse: reticence, assertiveness, concern, sarcasm, surprise, etc.

GRADING To successfully complete the course, students are required:

• to participate in class discussions (20 % of the final grade) demonstrating an appropriate level of understanding of the considered issues and an ability to reinforce arguments with illustrations;

• to complete laboratories (20 % of the final grade);

• to complete a final assignment (20 % of the final grade) which involves transcribing a recording of a 50-word authentic conversation in English on a tape, and analysing all the phonetic phenomena (modifications, suprasegmentals, type and style of English) found in it, specifying intonation groups, prominent and tonic syllables and the intonation patterns used. The speech can be extracted from any kind of source (television shows, radio shows, movies, conversations between / among native speakers of English, etc.) and from any type of English (British, American, Australian, etc.);

• to sit a final examination ( 40% of the final grade) which consists of two parts: (1) a written essay of two of the theoretical aspects of the course; (2) the analysis of natural speech phenomena on a heard text. Below you can see Final Examination Example and a list of the theoretical aspects of the course.

Контрольно-измерительный материал №1. Manifestation of intonation and its linguistic functions.

Basic intonation patterns of Modern English.

2. Listen to the utterance on the tape and comment on the phonetic phenomena in connected speech (sound modifications, sentence stress, intonation, etc.), the type and style it represents.

Theoretical Aspects of the Course 1. Phonetics as a branch of linguistics. Applications of phonetics.

2. Aspects of the sound matter of language.

3. Components of the phonetic system of language.

4. English is a non-phonetic language. International Phonetic Alphabet.

5. National and regional pronunciation variants of English.

6. British and American pronunciation models. Most distinctive features of BBC English and Network English.

7. The articulatory classification of English vowels.

8. The articulatory classification of English consonants.

9. Phoneme as many-sided dialectic unity of language. Types of allophones.

Distinctive and irrelevant features of the phoneme.

10. The system of vowel phonemes in English. Problem of diphthongs.

11. The system of consonant phonemes in English. Problem of affricates.

12. Modifications of English consonants in connected speech. Assimilation.

Elision.

13. Modifications of English consonants in connected speech. Assimilation.

Accomodation.

14. Modifications of vowels in connected speech. Reduction. Accomodation.

15. Linking patterns.

16. Theories on syllable division and formation.

17. The structure and functions of syllable in English.

18. Word stress in English. Its nature and function.

19. The degrees and the position of word stress.

20. Intonation and prosody: definition, functions, components, spheres of application.

21. Intonation and prosody: intonation patterns.

22. The framework for intonation.

23. Stress-time nature of Spoken English 24. Phonostylistics. Types and styles of pronunciation in English.

Part 1 English Speech Sounds Issues to Study and Discuss:

1. Sound-symbol Correspondence in English. The Role of the Phonemic Alphabet.

2. Articulatory Classification of English Consonants.

3. Articulatory Classification of English Vowels.

4. Problematic Sounds.

Tasks Task1.

What kind of knowledge would enable you to pronounce a word properly Could you (as a non-native speaker of English) rely on English spelling conventions to pronounce / read an unknown word properly How do you pronounce the “a” in “banana” the “c” in “success” the “th” in “Theresa”, “Theseus” and “Thames” Would you dare to read the word “Ghoti”; to transcribe it How would you spell [ ] Look through the funny observations of Bill Bryson and give examples of “untruly and unpredictable language” Ref. [ Bryson,1990, SRM, pp.49-54].

Would you call the English alphabet regular in the way it symbolizes the sounds of the language Back up your opinion.

Make a conclusion about sound-symbol correspondence system in English and the role of a phonetic/ phonemic alphabet as a set of special symbols by means of which sounds may be represented.

Task 2. Although the English version of the Roman alphabet is the primary source of symbols for transcribing English consonant phonemes, this alphabet has only twenty one consonant letters. What additions have been made and why Task 3.

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) first introduced by D. Jones is probably familiar to you. However, it is not the only system used by phoneticians. To familiarize yourself with some other commonly used phonetic /phonemic alphabets, see Ref. [Celce-M.

,1996, SRM, pp. 65-66].

What is your conclusion about the similarities and differences found in the alphabets Dwell on the broad versus narrow transcription.

Task 4. What are the main principles of classifying consonants Are there any differences when considering the problem among Russian, British and American linguists Make a list of the marked points of differences and fix the results in a table. Ref. [Соколова, 2004, pp.60-65; Соколова, 2003, pp.24-31].

Task 5. What is a sonorant There has traditionally been a lot of debate about this class of consonants or vowels Why do some of the British and American phoneticians refer some of the sonorants to the class of semivowels Does the term liquids, used by American phoneticians, appeal to you Why Task 6. Comment on the parameters below, illustrating them with examples.

Sonorants vary:

• in the manner of articulation;

• in the place of articulation;

• in the position of the soft palate;

• in the direction of the air stream.

Task 7. What nasal consonant is most ly to pose a challenge to Russian learners of English Why Do you know how English stops are correctly pronounced in English Right! They are often unreleased in final position. Read the words and phrases below following the example.

Example: mop/bob (lips remain closed); peck/peg (back of the tongue remains on velum).

pick/pig hot/cod back/bag tot/tod cap/cab shop/rob Wow! The buttons look they’re going to pop! Yeah, it’s just not going to fit.

I’m going to take it back.

In fact, there are other problematic consonant sounds. To eliminate possible mistakes, study the recommendations given in the textbooks Ref.

[Соколова,2003, pp.32-66.; Merkulova,2002, pp.46-47].

Task 8. Further practice: Ref. [Hancock, 2004, pp.14-18, 32-42; Trim, 2002, pp. 12-45].

Task 9. What is a vowel Examine its characteristics and define how vowel sounds differ from their consonant counterparts. Many linguists claim that the description of vowels is much more elusive than that of consonants. Why Task 10. Study the information about basic principles of classifying vowels and answer the following questions:

1. What is the most common vowel sound in English 2. How are English vowels classified on the articulatory and acoustic levels 3.

What does stability of articulation specify How are vowels subdivided according to this principle Is the situation seen similarly by different phoneticians 4.

What classifying principle do you think different vowel charts share Compare the IPA vowel chart and the North American English vowel chart(s).

Are there any differences If yes, how can you account for them Ref. [CelceM., 1996, SRM, pp.63-64 ].

5. Why is vowel length not considered a minimal distinctive feature What factors does it depend on Use a specific vowel sound to illustrate your answer.

6. Fill in the gaps in the following conclusion:

“…phonological analysis of articulatory features of English vowels allows us to consider the following two characteristics functionally relevant:

a)b). The rest of the features mentioned above, that is, _, and _ are indispensable constituents of vowel quality.” Ref. [Соколова, 2004, pp. 78-86;

Соколова, 2003, pp. 85-89; Bryson,1990, SRM, pp. 49-54].

Task 11. As noted, vowels can be difficult both for the teacher to describe and for the student to master.

This is partially because the articulatory characteristics of vowels cannot be pinned down as precisely as those of consonants.

A second reason why vowels can be so difficult is due to the relative complexity of the English vowel system – especially if compared to the vowel system of your native language.

1. What do you consider to be the greatest challenges in teaching vowels 2. Are there typical difficulties for native speakers of your language Task 12. Further practice: Ref. [Hancock,2004, pp.30-48, 142].

Task 13. Vowels as well as consonants have no meaning of their own but they can render communicative meaning.

A: Study some vowel interjections with communicative meaning in English and transcribe them.

VOWELS WITH COMMUNICATIVE MEANING IN ENGLISH Written Pronounced Used to express In response to/(situation) Ahhh! [] Satisfaction, (You step into a nice hot tub./You relaxation take a sip of refreshing iced tea on a hot day.) Aw. Sympathy, “My dog just died.

” [:] disappointment Ow! [aw] Pain (A door slams on your finger.) Oh [ow] Mild surprise, “The new Woody Allen movie is interest opening tonight.” Oh. [ow:] Comprehension “You have to plug it in before it’ll work.” Uh-oh.

[ — ow] Trouble (You’re driving over the speed limit and you see a police car in your rear-view mirror.) Ooh! [uw:] Disgust / “Look! There’s a fly in your Excitement soup!” Oops! [uwps] Recognition of (You spill your coffee while problem pouring.

) Aha! [ha] Discovery (You finally understand the math problem you’ve been working on.) Huh [h] Lack of (You don’t hear what someone (nasal) understanding says to you, or you think you heard incorrectly.) Boo! [buw] Frightening (You sneak up behind someone someone and want to scare him or her.) Uh-uh.

[] No “Have you ever read this book” (nasal) Uh-huh [n] Yes “Can I call you” (nasal) B: Practice using these simple interjections as an efficient means of conveying emotions and feelings.

A What would you say if … Respond to this:

Example:

1) you sat down to relax in a big comfortable chair after standing all day Ahh! 2) you didn’t hear what one of your friends just said to you 3) you saw your teacher coming toward you and you had skipped his class twice this week 4) you dropped the coin while paying in the shop 5) your boyfriend had just dumped you 6) your friend had swallowed a bug 7) the examiner had caught you cheating in the test B What situations cause the following responses Responses Example:

1) You quietly walked up behind a friend to scare Boo! her Oops! or Uh-oh! 2) Aw.

3) Huh 4) Ooh! 5) Task 14. In three of these words the underlined part is pronounced similarly; in the fourth word the underlined part is pronounced differently. Find the fourth word.

Example:

steak break clean great 1. lazy lapel label labourer 2. while which who white 3. come roll comb grow 4. blood prove rude souvenier 5. hour honest heir hospital 6. dealt dreamt heal jealous 7. slogan motor total proper 8. sugar cassette fashion passion 9. allow doubt bought scout 10. replace purchase surface palace 11. absent recent descent present 12.

promise device surprise realise 13.liable lived revival final 14. houses faces horses places 15. pudding put pull puncture 16. sovereign fountain determine routine 17. beard word heard third 18. ghost hostage lost frosty 19. bury friendly pretty pleasant 20. chorus cherish chaos scholarship 21. creature decent league menace 22.

measure dreadful treasure breathe 23. danger angel anger magic 24.trivial rival minor sign 25. nature change gravity basis 26. discipline vision cylinder muscle 27. office promise service expertise 28. suitable biscuit guilty building 29. patient crescent ancient machine 30. physical mythology rhythmic psychological Task 15.

A: Contribute to “Words commonly mispronounced by Russian learners of English”.

Does it influence understanding Is there internationally or scientifically recognized cure for mispronounciation How would you treat it Words commonly mispronounced by Russian learners of English Hotel, effort, country, onion, worry, … B: How would you treat the following a) a student constantly pronounces “cart” as [kat], “part” as [pat], etc.

substituting the English [a:] for the Russian [a];

b) a student pronounces “campus” as [kmpus];

c) a student cannot distinguish “pill” and “peel” and pronounces [pil] for both;

d) a student pronounces [mu:f] instead of [mu:v]; [set] instead of [sed]; [dis] instead of [is].

Task 16. Go to “Introspecting About Your Own Language Learning”(p. 47).

Pages:     || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   …   | 10 | Книги по всем темам

Источник: http://knigi.dissers.ru/books/1/13051-1.php

Theoretical phonetics. Study guide for second year students. Борискина О.О

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Источник: https://zzapomni.com/vgu-voronezh/boriskina-theoretical-phonetics-st-2007-1236

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